PCB Assembly Basics

At pcbnet.com, PCB assembly is made fast and easy. This guide will give you an overview of the board assembly process and why we are your most reliable source for high-quality PCBs.

pcbThe assembly of printed circuit boards (PCBs) is a process that includes multiple stages such as through-hole technology and surface mount technology (SMT). In the through-hole stage, the component leads are soldered onto the PCB through a wave soldering method. The SMT stage, on the other hand, begins by depositing solder paste on the connection pads of the board, followed by many other steps which are explained below.

Materials Needed for PCB Assembly

1.Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
2.Electronic components
3.Soldering flux
4.Soldering materials such as solder bar, solder paste, solder wire, solder preforms
5.Soldering equipment such as SMT equipment, wave-soldering machine, soldering station, and testing and inspection equipment

The PCB Assembly Process

Here are some of the steps involved in PCB assembly:

•Solder Paste Printing

Solder Paste PrintingThe solder paste is applied onto the PCB, usually through a stencil printer with a pin-registration system or an optical alignment. The quality of the print must be verified first before moving on to the next stage.

Instead of using stencils, we use a unique tool to jet the solder paste. This technique reduces time and cost in manufacturing and has become the standard in the PCB industry.

•Component Placement

After the solder paste is applied to the board, small SMT components are placed using a pick and place machine. Placing the components by hand can be dangerous and so it is not recommended for surface mount technology or SMT. If making a double-sided surface mount assembly, it is necessary to dispense glue to hold the components in place on both sides.

•Re-flow

After placing the components, the completed board is typically placed on an oven conveyor belt for the re-flow process. In this stage, the solder that was applied is melted and the component joints are connected permanently by means of controlled heat.

•Manual Insertion

Before the manual insertion process takes place, the leads of the component are cropped as leads should have proper length. Leads that are too short may not extend into the thru-holes, while leads that are too long may impede the components from sitting on the correct position on the board.

After cropping to appropriate length, the leads are then curved to a particular shape to relieve tension, and the components are manually inserted into the PCB.

•Wave Solder

In this process, the board is passed over a wave solder and a connection between the leads of the electronic components is established.

•Cleaning

In the cleaning stage, residues of solder flux round the solder joints are removed using de-ionized water and/or solvents. Typically though, a non-messy solder paste is used for printing with solder paste. In this case, it is unnecessary to remove flux residues after the soldering stage.

•Inspection

Using inspection machines, the quality of PCB assembly is verified in the final inspection stage. There should be no bridges between the solder balls, no shorts, and no loose balls surrounding the components or the leads.

PCB Quality Class Standards

Currently, there are three quality class standards in the PCB industry. Among these three, 1 and 2 are most popularly followed.

•Class 1

This is for general electronic products. This is also used to test and verify designs.

•Class 2

This is for dedicated service electronic products including high-level business machines, communication equipment, and instruments that require extended life and high performance, and for which service must not be interrupted.

•Class 3

Products under this class are usually used in some types of military, aeronautics, and medical applications, which require uninterrupted and highly-reliable service.

To ensure that our prototypes meet your specifications in production, we always give Class 2 to our customers.

TurnKey

We are first to have the Full TurnKey quote innovation that lets you obtain a PCB quote in no time. You can get one by either filling out the online quote form or by sending us the following info:

•Bill of Materials (BOM)
•Gerber Files
•Pick and Place Data
•Lead Time and Quantity Desired

After sending the above information to us, we will contact you shortly and send you a TurnKey quote within the same day (if received before 11 a.m. CST). As we use caliber equipment in the assembly of your PCB, you can guarantee that the result is of the highest standards.

The Popularity of Challenge Coins Outside the Military

Coins are used in trade as something you pay with in exchange for purchased goods and services. So what are challenge coins?

If you saw someone wearing a special coin or medallion, you may think that he/she is a military or police officer who has done outstanding service. These coins or medallions, commonly known as challenge coins, are traditionally given to members of the military or police as an award for exemplary work. Every branch of the U.S. Armed Forces – Air Force, Army, Coast Guard, Marine Corps, and Navy – all have their own badges, and each unit of command even has its own special coin.

challange coins

Different Uses

While these coins are gaining more and more popularity among military circles, do you know that these coins are now being used outside of the military?

One such occasion is coin collecting. Coin collecting is a popular hobby, and challenge coins are among the many types of coins that are highly valued by coin collectors all over the world. There are many shapes and styles of the challenge coin out there that make it attractive to coin collectors, such as diamond-cut edges, gold plantings, and additional designs. All these features turn a simple coin into a valuable piece of metal that can be sold for a high price.

Another example of the use of such coins is in the workplace. Private organizations, from small-scale startups to huge corporations, are making use of the tradition of giving special coins to employees who have shown exemplary performance in their work. Managers and employers use this not only to reward their employees but also to boost morale in the office environment, which could lead to more sales in the business.

Do you have a business that you want to boost? Or do you already have a new startup that you want to grow but just need a few customers to try out you brand so you can have a great start? Maybe custom coins are just the thing you need to revitalize or jump start your business. Because of the coin’s simplicity, there are a lot of creative ways where you can use challenge coins to put a special touch to your business. It all depends on what you want to achieve.

While there are a number of uses for such coins nowadays, there are also a number of different coin sizes for various situations.

custom coins

The most common sizes of the challenge coin are 1.5 inches, 1.75 inches and 2 inches. These are the typical sizes of the classic challenge coin, and the most common sizes up to this day. Coins ranging in this size range are commonly used by the military and by people who need to carry the coin around easily in their pockets.

There are also larger sizes of the challenge coin for those who are not shy of displaying their achievements and accomplishments to family and friends. You can have signature coins the size of a large plate and display it proudly in your car, or even in your living room for that next family reunion. You can even have 4.5-inch “coins” that could serve as a trophy for that competition you’re organizing. The possibilities are limited only by your imagination.

Purchasing the Best

In looking for the perfect challenge coins for your use, whether it’s personal or commercial, there are a lot of companies out there that offer top-of-the-line professional quality coins.

ChallengeCoins4Less.com is an online shop that offers custom coins in an easy and hassle-free way. You can fill out their free quote form and receive a quote in minutes! Or, if you already have a concept in mind, you can send it to ChallengeCoins4Less.com and they will give you suggestions and revisions on the artwork and design – all for free! There are a lot of options to choose from, whether it’s the shape of the coin or the finishing touches, ChallengeCoins4Less.com offers custom coins that you can trust.

Golf Clubs – Which Material Should You Pick?

Here is one of the most common questions among golf newcomers, and even among some experienced players – what’s the type of material that should be present in golf clubs. Some prefer the newer shafts made of graphite, while some stick to the old iron shafts.

No matter what type of material is used for the golf shafts, each has their own strengths and weaknesses, and golf players must pay attention to these qualities in order to maximize their swing potential.

Graphite Club Shafts

golfThe main advantage that graphite golf clubs have over steel ones, is that graphite clubs gives more swing power to golf players for every swing, especially in the case of drivers. This can be attributed to their minimal weight, providing more torque and flex to golf players and in turn boosting the power of their swings. Since they’re lightweight, all of the weight present will be concentrated on the heads of the club, which also contribute to the swing power. As you know, the more powerful a golfer’s swing is, the more yards the ball will travel. Another advantage that graphite shafts have is that the material itself also acts as a shock dampener when the club hits the ball and the ground. This significantly increases comfort for the player.

The increased power that graphite golf clubs have can also be cited as a disadvantage, as in exchange, accuracy and control are sacrificed. This can create a serious disadvantage when the golfer is very close to the putt area and only needs a single swing, as too much power might even cause the ball to miss the putt. In addition to this, graphite-made clubs are known to be more expensive (around 10% more) than steel-made ones.

Steel Club Shafts

Steel club shafts actually predated their graphite-made counterparts by three decades. They’re known to be heavier than graphite clubs, which then translates to less torque and flex. That’s why they have less swing power. Also, steel shafts generate more feedback when they hit the ball, which can give a slight discomfort to some players.

golf game

What steel-made shafts lose in power, however, it gains in accuracy and control. Therefore, steel golf clubs are more popular among players who already have high swing power and don’t need the further boost that graphite shafts provide. Usually, these golfers would prefer more control over their swings, so that they won’t have to struggle in trying to weaken their swing when the putt area is nearby. Also, the feedback that’s generated from the impact can also guide some golfers into knowing which part of the club head the ball was hit with, allowing them to adjust the accuracy of their swings more effectively. Also, even the highest-quality graphite shaft can’t beat the natural durability of a steel shaft, so long as it’s taken care of properly and kept rust-free. Finally and more importantly, golf clubs with steel shafts are cheaper and more affordable than those with graphite shafts.

Choosing The Proper Material

Since each type of shaft has its own advantages and disadvantages, there’s really no clear-cut winner in this match-up. Even professional golf players have a mixed preference when it comes to this, though most of them nowadays now use graphite-made shafts.

A good advice when choosing which type of club to use is to first test them out individually before making your purchase. Most pro shops have a mini-golf course where you can put any club to the test before actually buying it. That way, you’ll be able to determine the actual power that you exert behind your swing, which will be the basis on which shaft material you should choose.

For beginners, it’s also highly recommended to seek out advice from some advanced golf players. Ask them which type of material works best for them. Though one could argue that graphite shafts are preferable for beginners, some might say otherwise. Rockbottomgolf provides some guidelines and different choices that you can use to choose golf materials. must visit

Flipping Houses for a Profit: Smart Way of Investing in Real Estate

Flipping a house is quite becoming a trend as some TV station tries to portray how easy it can be to gain profit on this kind of real estate investment. Easy as it may seem, house flipping can be risky. To put your money on this kind of business is like putting a bet on two extreme ends. However, with the right knowledge plus experience which you can gain through years of training can indeed give you a sizeable amount of return.

Just like in any form of investment, risks and all pitfalls can be a part of house flipping and if you want to gain success in this business, you must learn to know the art of smart investing in real estate.

House Flipping Definition

House FlippingHouse flipping is when you buy a house and intend to sell it months later for a profit. It really sounds simple and logical, but logistics could play tricks on you and if you don’t know how to deal with it and do a wrong move, you will end up losing your money.

Now, if you are really serious in the flipping-house business, we can get into details to guide you into this.

Factors to Consider

Commonly, investors buy houses for flipping in real estate auction market and there are lots of these during a recession or when there’s inflation. These are usually foreclosed homes that are held for auction because owners are too far behind on their payments.

Excellent Credit Score

You must have a good credit score if you are to avail of home loans. Meaning, your credit history must not be tainted with unpaid balances or delayed payment. Lenders have now stricter with their requirements for homes especially when you are to flip for a high-risk house.

Some Amount of Cash

You may need cash to provide for a down payment to avoid paying private mortgage insurance on your second mortgage. Another option for you is to take out a home equity line of credit (HELOC) when you qualify and if you are purchasing a cheap house by way of a real estate auction.

If you have enough cash and you find a jackpot deal on a bargain-priced unit, then you can purchase it, apply for a loan to cover the cost of renovations, realtor fees and other costs relative to the sale.

What is Best for a Real Estate Investment?

Real Estate InvestmentFor smart investing in real estate, you must consider the following factors in a potential house flip.

Location

When considering a good location, you need to assess it as you want it for yourself if you happen to be the buyer. Choose a location bearing in mind its proximity to major amenities like learning facilities, parks, and playgrounds, hospital, etc. as they are easy to sell.

Good Condition

You surely don’t want a rundown house where you will be spending a lot of money for its repair or renovation. So look for a house with good structure. Before closing a deal, be sure you know what to look for. If you don’t, then try to bring someone who understands about structure to determine if the house is still structurally sound.

The Right Fixes

Before buying, be sure that you are able to make a right estimate of the fixes that need to be done. Can you afford to make some major repairs like a roof replacement, electrical rewiring, or replacing hollow doors throughout this home? This can require some serious time and cash to fix before you can finally sell it.

If you have done some major renovations, this will add to the price of the house when you have it in the market. When doing estimates on any cost of jobs, experts are recommending that you need a 20 percent markup to allow possible price increase and other unexpected conditions to arise at the time of fixing.

Proximity to Where you Live

Assuming you will need time and effort in managing your business, you must need to consider the distance of your house to the location site. It is advisable therefore to choose one closer to you, so you don’t have to waste time in traveling.

In summary, we can say that flipping houses in real estate promise both risks and rewards. But one thing is sure, of all investments, real estate remains to be stable. You may be losing some money in a certain period, but in the long run, you can get them back with the profit!

Author Bio:
Visit li realestatefinder is the best option to get affordable property investment solution. One stop source for mortgage-lending website to deal with real estate property investments.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Custom Embroidered Patches

Custom embroidered patches are made of multi-colored threads and a fabric backing. They usually feature logos of certain organizations including various government units, military, school, companies, foundations, businesses, sports team, scouting clubs, and etc. In the military, color and image applied on the patches are of significant meanings. For example, the lion symbolizes courage and the color blue denotes loyalty among the soldiers.

PatchesCustom patches became more popular and widely used by the smallest to the largest organizations when other processes were made possible. Computerized machines enable dye application to the bases of the patches to apply the design and images. Woven patches were also invented.

Among all types of patches, custom embroidered patches remain the most popular. Actually, each of the types has their own strengths and weaknesses so you have to examine them first to know which one is really the best for your organization. Here are your choices.

Embroidered Patches

These patches are commonly attached to uniforms, hats, bags, sneakers, and jackets. They usually carry the brand name of the products. The bases of embroidered patches are twills. The twills can be half covered or fully covered with threads depending on the design.

The advantage of embroidered patches is their durability. The threads do not wear off even after many washes. The disadvantage is the limitation with the design. Small lettering is not ideal with custom embroidered patches as the letters would not appear legible. Too much detail may also create messy-looking patches.

Woven Patches

Twills are also the base of woven custom patches. They are basically similar with embroidered patches. The only difference is the thread used. Woven patches require thinner threads known as micro-polyester threads. Because of this, they can accommodate more elaborate designs and smaller texts. The finish is also smoother than that of embroidered patches.

Woven patches can have different shapes and sizes. They could follow the shape of the design; for example human faces, landmarks, statues, towers, buildings, landscapes, vehicles, and animals.

Printed Patches

These modern patches make use of silk-screen printing to apply the customer’s preferred design on the bases of the patches. Silk-screen printing is also the process used to customize t-shirts, cups, hats, and lanyards. The advantage of this is the scope of the design. They allow intricate logos and small fonts. They also feature unlimited color selection. The disadvantage is the tendency of the design to wear off after multiple washes.

These patches are common in schools and colleges. They are also convenient compared to other types of patches.

Dye Sublimated Patches

Here, dye is applied to every molecule of the twill base. The process results to high-quality patches with clear and striking images. Dye sublimated custom patches are perfect in promoting new businesses or product brands.

Their advantage is their durability. As opposed to silk-screen printed patches, dye sublimated patches do not wear off. The material and the design are both long-lasting. Dye sublimated patches can also produce realistic images. The disadvantage is their cost; they are more expensive than the other types of patches.

Chenille Patches

These patches are common to varsity jackets. They feature fonts and numerals. Chenille patches, also called as letterman patches, are flexible in shape and size. They are also soft and furry. You may also use these patches as decorations for your scrapbook or journal.

The only disadvantage of this type is their limitation in designs. They only permit simple objects, shapes, letters, and numbers.

Name Patches

These patches are ideal for small groups or individual customers. If you want to label your bag or purses, you can purchase these name patches. They are usually rectangular in shape and feature simple letterings. Name custom patches are also common in some schools. They usually carry the name of the students, grade level, department, and the name of the school.

Blank Patches

Some patches do not feature any logo or design but they are ready for future customization. These blank patches are perfect for impromptu events. If you also plan to have an organization patch but you have not yet decided for your design, these are the ideal patches for you.

The bases of blank patches are also twills. They can be made into custom embroidered patches or dyed sublimated patches.

Bullion Crests

Bullion crests are one of the latest innovative patches. Aside from the base twill and threads, they also employ the use of beads, velvet, and wires. They use special metallic threads to apply the design. The stitches used are the same as the embroidered patches.

Rubber PVC Patches

These are made of soft rubber PVC material. They use a high-tech 3D mold to apply the design, images, and texts on the base material. These kinds of patches are considered as collector items.

All the types of patches can be attached to fabrics with the use of different backings. Some of these backings are plastic backing, adhesive backing, magnetic backing, pin backing, hook-sided and two-sided Velcro backing, button loop backing, and heat sealed backing.

The Exciting Possibilities of Using Good Media Signage Software

Media Signage Software

Ever since advertisers began using them for exhibitions, marketing schemes, place-making, and public gatherings years ago, media signage software is increasingly becoming popular as an effective means of creating products that displays basic and enticing information to a crowd. Many use it simply for communicating to people without knowing that there is actually more to the advanced system. Especially if you are willing to explore options that come with the tool, exciting possibilities can be yours.

Present with a Selection of Quality Templates
Most digital signage programs come with a template chooser feature, you will not have to settle for plain and ordinary templates. Instead, you can pick one from a selection of quality templates. With available completed layouts in a variety of clean and professional styles, you can go for an appropriate kind, then, begin the job instantly. Either that, or you can create your signature design for your signage. It depends on how fast you work but usually, preparing a template for your project can be done in a few minutes.

Avoid Distorted Media
With media signage software equipped with the right features, displaying signage with distorted media will not be a concern. Since a common problem that many people have been complaining about is poor angles upon viewing presentations of sorts, most creators of such programs have addressed the issue. As the solution, they have added a feature that enables a user to select and lock aspect ratios of what will be on screen. Even with an adjusted ratio, quality of the media will not be compromised, and will retain their native resolution.

Easy Text Extraction
If you want text copied from another document and be displayed on the signage you are working on, using a digital signage program designed with text extraction feature will do the trick. Since not all signage tools allow the user to copy from a source, the importance of choosing the better type should be kept in mind. With the feature, as soon as the new text file has been saved, the software will automatically have the content updated and hand you the option to make further adjustments to enhance the final product.

Add & Update Audio Playlists (For the Signage & for Personal Use)
A good digital signage tool allows you to add and update playlists easily to your signage, and to your own music player, as well. Depending on the brand of software you use, you can use enjoy music and other audio files as you wish. You have the option to search for music in the program’s library or have access to your own playlist.

Social Network Integration
With a good media signage program, easily connecting to different social networking sites such as Twitter is possible. Granted the software includes social network integration as one of its advanced features, you can have updates on what’s going on with people on the internet, and in turn, send them updates of your progress from your end. For instance, since you have affiliation to your Twitter account, real-time tweets can be returned to you through the signage tool. Additionally, if you prefer, you can even directly engage an audience on the social site with your signage.

Adjust Presets with the Best Tools

By using a reliable media signage program, you can add presets, then, have them adjusted accordingly with the best tools meant for choosing window style, incorporating text, and enhancing images. With the feature, you can make a project more interesting and contain more value. So long as the software you use can support adjustments, editing an already finished presentation can be effortless.